Table of Contents
Ecology is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.
Community ecology is the study of the interactions among a collections of species that inhabit the same geographic area.
Ecosystem ecology is the science of determining the fluxes of materials between different pools.
- How soils form and age - Timberpress
Industrial ecology is the study of material and energy flows through industrial systems.
- Industrial Ecology: An Introduction - Andy Garner and Gregory A. Keoleian
- The Journal of Industrial Ecology - Yale University
Population ecology studies the dynamics of species populations and how these populations interact with the environment.
Spatial ecology studies the ultimate distributional or spatial unit occupied by a species.
Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving relationships between ecological processes in the environment and particular ecosystems.
Social ecology studies relationships between people and their environment, often the interdependence of people, collectives and institutions.
- Establishing and Maintaining Healthy Environments - Daniel Stokols
- Social Ecology in the Digital Age - Daniel Stokols
- Conceptual Social Ecology - University of California, Irvine
- Linking Social and Ecological Systems - Fikret Berkes & Carl Folke
- Navigating Social-Ecological Systems - Fikret Berkes, Johan Colding & Carl Folke
Systems ecology is an interdisciplinary field of ecology that takes a holistic approach to the study of ecosystems.
Theoretical ecology is the study of ecological systems using theoretical methods such as simple conceptual models, mathematical models, computational simulations, and advanced data analysis.
Urban ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings in the context of an urban environment.