This is an old revision of the document!
Table of Contents
- Contribute links or articles to this topic
- Contribute some manuals or “how-tos” regarding decentralisation.
Single Board Computers
Single board computers or SBCs are smaller, lower cost and lower power consumption computers than desktop motherboards. While typically computationally less powerful, they offer a balance between performance and energy consumption, like a Raspberry Pi Zero. This allows them to be used in situations without access to mains electric, where solar panels or similar are used to provide electrical energy. They are also useful for projects such as running a personal server for cloud storage, for those that do not wish to trust large companies with their private data.
A searchable database of all SBCs available is hosted on BoardDB.
- Raspberry Pi have an established and trusted selection of boards, and regularly blog about what people are doing with their SBCs. They have many education resources too, though most are fun and not particularly solarpunk.
- I2P - The Invisible Internet Project (I2P) is a FLOSS anonymous network layer that allows for censorship-resistant, peer to peer communication. Anonymous connections are achieved by encrypting the user's traffic (by using end-to-end encryption), and sending it through a volunteer-run network of roughly 55,000 computers distributed around the world. Given the high possibility of paths the traffic can transit, a third party watching a full connection is unlikely. The software that implements this layer is called an “I2P router”, and a computer running I2P is called an “I2P node”.
- Tor - The Onion Router (TOR) is FLOSS for enabling online anonymity. Tor directs Internet traffic through a free, worldwide, volunteer network consisting of more than seven thousand relays to conceal a user's location or usage from anyone conducting network surveillance or traffic analysis. Using Tor makes it more difficult to trace Internet activity, including “visits to Web sites, online posts, instant messages, and other communication forms”, back to the user and is intended to protect the personal privacy of users, as well as their freedom and ability to conduct confidential business by keeping their internet activities from being monitored.
Secure instant messaging is a specialized form of instant messaging that along with other differences, encrypts and decrypts the contents of the messages such that only the actual users can understand them.
- Riot - A secure collaboration app for group chat, file transfer and voice/video conferencing built on the decentralized Matrix ecosystem, providing bridges and integrations to centralized services such as IRC, Slack, Gitter, etc
- XMPP - Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is a communication protocol for message-oriented middleware such as Psi+ (Desktop), Conversations (Android) and ChatSecure (iOS). It enables the near-real-time exchange of structured yet extensible data between any two or more network entities.
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information — the activity of making information available to the general public.
- PeerTube - A FLOSS decentralized federated video hosting network that uses peer-to-peer technology to reduce load on individual servers.
- Pixelfed - Federated image sharing.
- WriteFreely - A FLOSS federated blogging platform.
A mesh network is a decentralized peer-to-peer network, with user-controlled physical links that are usually wireless, where each node must not only capture and disseminate its own data, but also serve as a relay for other nodes, that is, it must collaborate to propagate the data in the network.
- Cjdns - Cjdns implements an encrypted IPv6 network using public-key cryptography for address allocation and a distributed hash table for routing. This provides near-zero-configuration networking, and prevents many of the security and scalability issues that plague existing networks. Instead of letting other computers connect to you through a shared IP address which anyone can use, cjdns only lets computers talk to one other after they have verified each other cryptographically.
- tinc - tinc is a Virtual Private Network (VPN) daemon that uses tunnelling and encryption to create a secure private network between hosts on the Internet. Because the VPN appears to the IP level network code as a normal network device, there is no need to adapt any existing software. This allows VPN sites to share information with each other over the Internet without exposing any information to others.
- Contribute some manuals or “how-tos” regarding mesh networks.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
- Debian - Unix-like operating system composed entirely of free software packaged by a team of volunteers. The Debian stable branch is the most popular edition for personal computers and network servers, and is used as a base for many other distributions.
- Fedora - Linux distribution developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat. Fedora contains software distributed under various free and open-source licenses and aims to be on the leading edge of such technologies. Fedora has a reputation for focusing on innovation, integrating new technologies early on and working closely with upstream Linux communities. Making changes upstream instead of specifically for Fedora ensures that the changes are available to all Linux distributions.
- LineageOS - LineageOS is a FLOSS operating system for set-top boxes, smartphones and tablet computers, based on the Android mobile platform. It is the successor to the custom ROM CyanogenMod, from which it was forked in December 2016. It also has a fork, in Replicant, which aims to eliminate all proprietary components.
- Tails - The Amnesic Incognito Live System (TAILS) is a security-focused Debian-based Linux distribution aimed at preserving privacy and anonymity. All its outgoing connections are forced to go through Tor, and non-anonymous connections are blocked. The system is designed to be booted as a live DVD or live USB, and will leave no digital footprint on the machine unless explicitly told to do so.
A distributed social network or federated social network is an Internet social networking service that is decentralized and distributed across distinct providers.
- Diaspora - A user-owned, distributed social network.
- Friendica - A FLOSS, distributed social network.
- Mastodon - A distributed, federated microblogging platform.
A web browser is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web. Each individual web page, image, and video is identified by a distinct URL, enabling browsers to retrieve and display them on the user's device.
- Firefox - A FLOSS web browser developed by the Mozilla Foundation. You can safeguard your browsing habits and stop advertising companies from tracking you by installing addons including: Cookie AutoDelete, Decentraleyes, HTTPS Everywhere, NoScript, Privacy Badger and uBlock Origin.
Web Search Engines
A web search engine is a software system that is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. The search results are generally presented in a line of results. The information may be a mix of web pages, images and other types of files.
- DuckDuckGo - An Internet search engine, hosted around the world, that emphasizes protecting searchers' privacy and avoiding the filter bubble of personalized search results. It has some open-source components.
- Searx - A FLOSS metasearch engine with the aim of protecting the privacy of its users.
- Ecosia - A private web search engine based in Berlin, Germany, which donates 80% of its surplus income to non-profit conservationist organizations, with a focus on tree planting.